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'The task of art', McLuhan says, echoing Harold Innis, 'is to correct the bias of technological media.' (NAEB III: 22) While the 'products and processes' of technology 'transform' the environment, the artist 'makes new perception' (TT 94). McLuhan says:

Art as an anti-environment is an indispensable means of perception, for environments, as such, are imperceptible. Their power to impose their ground rules on our perceptual life is so complete that there is no scope for dialogue or interface. Hence the need for art or anti-environments. (UB 20, pp.3-4)

The relationship between technology and art, environment and anti-environment, is dialectical; every technology is created in the first place as a work of art, while every work of art, in its repeated use, becomes a technology (CA). McLuhan does not distinguish between art and science as such; the artist is a person 'in any field, scientific or humanistic, who grasps the implications of his actions and of new knowledge in his own time' (UM 65). Later, McLuhan and Eric McLuhan suggest that the 'laws of media' (i.e. Extension, Obsolescence, Retrieval and Reversal) apply to the arts as well as the sciences and in fact 'erase the distinction between them' (LM x).

The Artist

McLuhan's concept of the 'artist' was greatly influenced by the modernists, for whom the function of art and role of the artist were matters of the highest concern. To the modernists, art exists to '[adjust] the reader to the contemporary world' (IL xiv). As McLuhan notes, T.S. Eliot wrote a number of 'patient' essays, and Ezra Pound a number of 'impatient' ones, designed to educate their readers in modern poetic technique; their efforts, McLuhan declared in 1950, have 'thus far been ineffectual', while James Joyce, whose first book was A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916, serialized 1914-1915), McLuhan says 'wrote no essays yet is no worse off in his readers' (Renascence 3(1), p.45). Initially conceptualizing the role of the artist in the terms provided by I.A. Richards, Wyndham Lewis, Eliot, Pound and Joyce, by the mid 1950's McLuhan started to expound differences between the artist in 'tribal' society, in (literate) Western society, and in so-called 'post-literate' or electronic society. The concept of the 'artist' provides the parameters for the application of McLuhan's 'anti-social', 'anti-environmental' method of 'probing' the (unconscious) environment, and, McLuhan tells us, has utility across all fields of the arts and sciences.

Artist and Critic

In The Mechanical Bride and McLuhan's early pieces of literary criticism, McLuhan's concept of the artist is to some extent intertangled with that of the critic. We may attribute this to the influence of I.A. Richards and F.R. Leavis, McLuhan's mentors at Cambridge University, as well as to the influence of T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis, all of whom fulfilled both roles. Lewis's 'strategy', for example, as both artist and critic, McLuhan says, is 'the training of perception' (Renascence 12(2), p.94). Richards meanwhile describes the function of art as that of 're-ordering' the 'impulses' of the nervous system, so as to adjust the reader to the current environment; art, Richards suggests, is part of the process of evolution, 'relieving ... the strain put upon [the organism] by life in a particularly uncongenial environment' (Richards, 1929: 287). Lewis turns this around: 'The artist,' he says, 'is engaged in writing a detailed history of the future because he is aware of the unused possibilities of the present.' (NAEB VII: i) Similarly, for Ezra Pound (1934: 65), 'Artists are the antennae of the race.' Reformulating these concepts of the artist in The Mechanical Bride, McLuhan defines 'art' as both a 'storehouse of achieved values' and 'the antennae of new awareness and discovery', enabling 'a unified and an inclusive consciousness in which there is easy commerce between old and new' (MB 87). He says that 'The great artist necessarily has his roots very deep in his own time - roots which embrace the most vulgar and commonplace fantasies and aspirations.' (MB 152) He repeats this in From Cliché To Archetype, arguing that artists tend to draw upon the most 'banal', 'vulgar' materials of collective consciousness (CA 178-179; 152); a technique described, McLuhan suggests, in W.B. Yeats's poem 'The Circus Animals' Desertion', finished just before Yeats' death in 1939 (CA 181):

Those masterful images because complete
Grew in pure mind, but out of what began?
A mound of refuse or the sweeping of a street,
Old kettles, old bottles, and a broken can,
Old iron, old bones, old rags, that raving slut
Who keeps the till. Now that my ladder's gone,
I must lie down where all the ladders start,
In the foul rag-and-bone shop of the heart.

McLuhan says in The Mechanical Bride that 'The basic criterion for any kind of human excellence is simply how heavy a demand it makes on the intelligence. How inclusive a consciousness does it focus?' (MB 152) He expands in Understanding Media: 'The artist is the man in any field, scientific or humanistic, who grasps the implications of his actions and of new knowledge in his own time. He is the man of integral awareness.' (UM 65) The phrase 'integral awareness' implies that the artist is one for whom 'consciousness' is not 'fragmented' by repression (e.g. in the use of the phonetic alphabet), so that McLuhan can say of Joyce, for example, that 'he had no subliminal side to him. He was terribly aware' (Renascence 12(4), p.202). At the same time, 'integral awareness', like the term 'inclusive consciousness', seems to imply the encyclopedism of Cicero's doctus orator, i.e. a consciousness that includes all (or as much as possible) of the culture that has come before it.

Anti-Social as Anti-Environmental

Art is not the only province of the anti-environment, however. To McLuhan, all 'anti-social' activities are anti-environmental, because they raise the unconscious environment to conscious attention. McLuhan uses the tale of 'The Emperor's New Clothes' to illustrate the way that only someone outside of a certain environment is able to 'see' it for what it actually is. He elaborates:

"Well-adjusted" courtiers, having vested interests, saw the emperor as beautifully appointed. The "antisocial" brat, unaccustomed to the old environment, clearly saw that the Emperor "ain't got nothin' on." The new environment was clearly visible to him. (MM 88)

To McLuhan, the 'artist' (like the antisocial brat) is one who is 'rarely "well-adjusted," he cannot go along with currents and trends' (Ibid.). While technologies inspire somnambulism, the artist 'sharpens our perception' (Ibid.). McLuhan says: 'Poets and artists live on frontiers. They have no feedback, only feedforward. They have no identities. They are probes.' (CIOB 44) He finds 'aesthetic bonds between the poet, the sleuth, and even the criminal', likening Arthur Rimbaud and Ernest Hemingway to spy hero James Bond and the rogues played by Humphrey Bogart, arguing that all 'explore the shifting frontiers of morals and society. They are engaged in detecting the social environment by probing and transgression. For to probe is to cross boundaries of many kinds ...' (UB 20, p.5) McLuhan says that 'The child, by delinquent behavior, is aping the exploratory artist. Dostoevski was aware of this in Crime and Punishment. He saw the criminal as a sort of cross between the saint and the artist.' (EM 226) As anti-social activities are those that reveal the hidden environment, McLuhan says that 'Professionalism is environmental. Amateurism is anti-environmental.' (MM 93) Amateurs, like 'small children', are less apt to conform to the established mores of the environment (MM 93; UB 20, p.4).

Games (Capsule of Environment)

McLuhan says that games 'as a sort of capsule or live paradigm of any society' are anti-environmental. (WP 169) He says: 'Games ... involve the sensory life of a society in a mocking and fictitious way. To simulate one situation by means of another one, to turn the whole working environment into a small model, is a means of perception and control by means of public ritual.' (WP 168-169) He says that the audience participates in the game 'as the environmental cliché', while 'the players enact the metaphorical archetype of the wider situation'. (WP 169) In fact he argues that the audience is 'indispensible' to the game, for '[t]he greatest contest in the world in which only the players are present would have no game character whatever.' (WP 169)

News (Rules of Environment)

News, or rather bad news ('Good news is simply not news', McLuhan says) enables us to perceive the 'ground rules' of the environment. In 'The Emperor's Old Clothes' (1966), McLuhan cites from a British legal case cited, in turn, in a book called Uncommon Law by English humorist Alan P. Herbert. 'Evidence was brought that "what is called 'news' is always an anti-social and disturbing act; that 'news' consists, as to ninety percent, of the records of human misfortunes, unhappiness and wrongdoing, as to nine per cent of personal advertisement ..."' (UB 20, pp.4-5) McLuhan interprets:

It has often mystified readers of the press that real news is bad news. Good news is simply not news. The ads are full of good news. Good news is a repeat of the old environment, while bad news is a probe into the new environment. Bad news reveals the lines of force in an environment ... (UB 20, p.5)

By the 'ground rules' or 'lines of force' McLuhan seems to mean the law, i.e., law in all its forms - moral law, written law, unwritten law, 'the laws of nature', etc. News of disasters and wrongdoing 'enables us to perceive our world'; 'without crime as content we would not be able to perceive the environment' McLuhan says. (UB 4, p.11; EM 226) The ads meanwhile balance the 'bad news' with 'good news': 'Since ads are all good news,' McLuhan quips, 'it takes a lot of bad news to sell good news.' (CIOB 268)

Jokes (Probe of Environment)

Jokes, too, are anti-environmental. McLuhan says that 'Humor ... as a probe of our environment - of what's really going on - affords us our most appealing anti-environmental tool.' (MM 92) The 'clown' or joker 'is a probe.... the clown attacks power. He tests the tolerances for us all. He tells us where the new boundaries are on the changing frontiers of the Establishment. The clown is merciless, without conscience, yet he gets our sympathy because he is a scapegoat.' (CIOB 288) McLuhan says that jokes 'are stabs or probes into the cultural matrix that plagues [us]' and that it is 'inevitable that the funny man be "a man with a grievance"'; conversely, 'anyone can determine an area of social irritation and disturbance by simply checking the areas from which jokes are currently emerging'. (CA 132-133) However, 'When grievances or irritations become too severe, the joke ceases to function as a catharsis.' (CA 133) Violent acts of war, for example, inspire few jokes, but there are countless jokes about the minor irritations that flourish in immigrant populations and between neighbouring nations. (Ibid.)

Tribal Art vs. Art as Anti-Environment or Probe

The function of art, McLuhan says, echoing I.A. Richards, is to 'orient', 'adjust' or 'attune' the populace to fluctuations or changes in the environment. While art in tribal cultures serves to 'merge' the populace with the current environment, art in a rapidly transforming culture is a matter of constructing 'anti-environments', that is, deliberately disturbing or disrupting the current environment by raising it to (conscious) attention. McLuhan was aware of this distinction as early as 1951. He wrote to Harold Innis:

the business of art is no longer the communication of thoughts or feelings which are to be conceptually ordered, but a direct participation in an experience. The whole tendency of modern communication whether in the press, in advertizing or in the high arts is towards participation in a process, rather than the apprehension of concepts. And this major revolution, intimately linked to technology, is one whose consequences have not begun to be studied although they have begun to be felt. (L 221)

In his study of pre-literate cultures (aided by friends Dorothy Lee and Ted Carpenter in the Toronto communications group in the 1950's), McLuhan became aware that the role of the artist in oral ('tribal') culture was different to that of the artist in Western society. He says in Counterblast: 'What we [in Western society] call art would seem to be specialist artefacts for enhancing human perception. Since the Renaissance, the arts have become privileged means of perception for the few, rather than means of participation in a common life, or environment. This phase now seems to be ending [with electronic culture] ...' (CB 32, emphasis in original) The modernist works of art, McLuhan says, like tribal art 'have no content and no subject matter' (NAEB IV: 4). He says that 'thematic variation' in storytelling has replaced 'narrative continuity', and attributes this to the fact that 'we are becoming a non-visual society' (UB 4, pp.15-16). Or, as he also explains it, 'The unconscious that had long been the environment of consciousness has become the content of modern artistic awareness.' (UB 20, p.9)

Reformulating this argument in From Cliché to Archetype, McLuhan says that the form of modernist art, like tribal art, is that of 'archetype-into-cliché', while art from the medieval period, the Renaissance, the industrial age and the present-day Western literati takes the form of 'cliché-as-probe' (CA 121). McLuhan says that 'The artist in the Middle Ages, Renaissance, or the era up to the nineteenth century was regarded as a unique, exceptional person because he used a unique, exceptional process [i.e. the 'cliché-probe']. In primordial times, as today, the artist uses a familiar, ordinary technique [i.e. the 'archetype-into-cliché'] and so he is looked upon as a familiar, ordinary person.' (CA 118) Unlike Western art, which exists for the 'training of perception', McLuhan says that 'The function of art in a tribal society is not to orient the population to novelty but to merge it with the cosmos.... The primitive role of art [is that] of serving as consolidator and as liaison with the hidden cosmic powers ...' (CA 177) An example of the 'archetype-into-cliché' process is to be found in James Joyce's 'use of an archetypal Ulysses ... to explore contemporary consciousness in the city of Dublin' (CA 118). Joyce sets up a parallel between the journey of Odysseus as archetype and 20th-century Dublin as the invisible environment. In other words, as he 'retrieves' Homer's Odyssey, Joyce reveals the hidden environment in the form of a new cliché, i.e., the novel Ulysses. The technique of cliché-as-probe, by contrast, 'is always at the "interface" of discourse': 'feed[ing]-forward ... but always engaged in retrieving old clichés from every sphere of human activity' (CA 164). The cliché-probe 'junks present environments' in a cyclic process of creation and destruction (CA 184). McLuhan says, however, that 'there is a paradox in cliché itself, since at the moment of truth it is tossed onto the scrap heap of the obvious and the useless. In retrospect, all great discoveries are obvious' (CA 164).

McLuhan suggests that 'art ceases to be a form of self-expression in the electric age. Indeed, it becomes a necessary kind of research and probing.' (VP xxiv) One example of this is the 'Happening', which raises the entire environment to attention in order to 'archetypalize' it. McLuhan says that

The Happening ... is the repetition of an environment as a means of offering some control to the perceiver, for whom it is expected to be a familiar environment. An environment is far too unwieldy a thing to be usable as a probe. The art materials shaped by a single artist can serve as a probe to direct and order perception. With the Happening the exploratory and probe functions have to be assumed by the audience directly. The environment as familiar cliché is archetypalized, at least to the extent of being repeated. (CA 198)

We can contrast the 'Happening' to 'Pop Art', which McLuhan says is the product of drawing attention to 'some object in our own daily environment as if it were anti-environmental' - think, for example, of Andy Warhol's Marilyns or Heinz soup cans (UB 4, p.8). McLuhan cautions that

Pop Art serves to remind us ... that we have fashioned for ourselves a world of artefacts and images that are intended not to train perception or awareness but to insist that we merge with them as the primitive man merges with his environment. The world of modern advertising [by this interpretation,] is a magical environment constructed to produce effects for the total economy but not designed to increase human awareness. (UB 4, pp.7-8)

Modern art is also the domain of the 'icon' and the 'pun', which preserve a playful interplay between environment and anti-environment. McLuhan says in a letter of 1964: 'The icon combines the environmental and the anti-environmental much in the manner of the pun. The pun by means of low-definition [sic] permits interplay between itself as environment and itself as anti-environment.' (L 297) McLuhan says that 'any high definition image can be made environmental and involving by repetition', as with Andy Warhol, who 'uses the technique of redundancy and repetition to transform the pictorial into the iconic' (Ibid.). On the other hand, presenting 'part of the environment' in 'high definition' can be 'a means of dismissing it from attention. As soon as one has paid special attention to any part of one's environment it tends to be ignored or dismissed.' (Ibid.)

McLuhan distinguishes, too, between art in tribal society and art in 'electronic' society. To start with, McLuhan says that the effect of electronic technology is to transform all extant environments into anti-environments (i.e. objects of attention, art objects), because electronic technology 'is totally environmental', putting all other environments into the position of 'content' (think of TV and Internet). He explains:

Electric technology is totally environmental for all human communities today. Hence the great confusion arising from the transformation of environments into anti-environments, as it were. All the earlier groupings that had constituted separate environments before electricity have now become anti-environments or the content of the new technology. As such, the old unconscious environments tend to become increasingly centres of acute awareness. The content of any new environment is just as unperceived as the old one had been initially.... In the electric age all former environments whatever become anti-environments. As such, the old environments are transformed into areas of self-awareness and self-assertion, guaranteeing a very lively interplay of forces. (UB 4, p.14)

At the same time as this is happening, electronic technology transforms the 'public as environment' into a 'mass audience' (Ibid. p.12). McLuhan says: 'The printed word created the Public. The Public consists of separate individuals, each with his own point of view.... The Mass does not consist of separate individuals, but of individuals profoundly involved in one another.' (Ibid. pp.16-17) An effect of this is that people now tend to participate as 'co-creators rather than as consumers', both in art and education (Ibid. p.12). McLuhan says:

Art and education become new forms of experience, new environments, rather than new anti-environments. Pre-electric art and education were anti-environments in the sense that they were the content of various environments. Under electric conditions the content itself tends however towards becoming environmental itself. (Ibid.)

Both modern and postmodern art, McLuhan suggests, present form (environment) as content (anti-environment). However, postmodern art differs from modern art in that it also features 'producers as consumers'. Says McLuhan, 'in the global theater the audience and the crew become actors, producers rather than consumers. They seek to program events rather than to watch them.' (UB 5, p.19) In an early article, McLuhan says that whereas authors in the past, as members of society, could enlighten the rest of society by 'introspection', today 'it is no longer possible to be sure of what being a member of society may involve' and 'no single writer ... can encompass more than a fragment of the available attention of the public', so that the author therefore 'has to bestir himself as much as any pollster' (UB 14, p.13). He later elaborates that 'As the electronic creates a total field situation by providing more and more information of all kinds, the audience is naturally involved more and more as producer and creator. The art forms which result from this new situation are increasingly do-it-yourself forms.' (NAEB III: 107) Meanwhile, McLuhan says that 'Experimentation has passed from the control of the private artist to the groups in charge of the new technologies', because 'The new media need the best artist talent and can pay for it.' (NAEB VII: i) He explains:

It would seem to be paradoxical that in the new auditory and electronic age the role of the artist should move steadily away from the ivory tower towards the control tower in society. But whether in industrial design or town planning and marketing, the highest artistic powers are in ever greater demand. As we become ever more alert to the personal and social consequences of non-verbal forms in patterning our lives, the artist becomes the key figure in providing models of larger situations which will give us power of control over change. (Renascence 12:4, pp.204-205)

Thus, 'whereas in the past the individual artist, manipulating private and inexpensive materials, was able to shape models of new experience years ahead of the public, today the artist works with expensive public technology, and artist and public merge in a single experience' (NAEB VII: i) McLuhan's argument is best illustrated by the new Internet technologies (Google, Facebook, Youtube, Wikipedia, etc.). However, McLuhan warns, with the current 'speed' of development, 'the artist can no longer provide years of advance developments in the patterns of human experience which will inevitably emerge from new technological development' (Ibid.).

Artist as Rhetorician

McLuhan's method as an artist himself is inspired by the ancient art of rhetoric. His doctoral thesis of 1943, 'The Place of Thomas Nashe in the Learning of His Time', is a study of the history of rhetoric and its application from ancient times through to the English Renaissance, leading McLuhan to appreciate that '[t]he rhetorical handbooks of the sixteenth century were nearly all derived from the medieval favorites [i.e. the ancient writers and texts celebrated during the medieval period]: Hermogenes, Ad Herennium, Cicero, and Quintilian' and that '[t]he rhetorical treatises [from Cicero to Nashe] make very little sense apart from the whole tradition of ancient and medieval education', in which rhetoric was taught alongside the arts of grammar and dialectic (CT 5). The art of rhetoric since Cicero (106 BC - 43 BC) and Quintilian (c. 35 - 100 AD) is held to have five 'divisions': inventio (discovery), dispositio (arrangement), elecutio (style), memoria (memory) and pronuntiatio or actio (delivery), which were believed to capture 'every aspect of speech, from the whole down to the last detail'. (E. McLuhan, n.d., 'St. Thomas Aquinas's Theory of Communication') The elder McLuhan applies these techniques not only to verbal presentation, but to communication more broadly. One of the best examples of this is the 'Marshall McLuhan DEW-LINE newsletter', published from 1968-1970 by Eugene M. Schwartz in New York. The DEW-LINE, the title a reference to Canada's 'Distant Early Warning' communications system of the Cold War years, was available to subscribers only and was published in various formats, including papers clipped in folders, a tabloid newspaper, and printed booklets, often accompanied by 'posters, vinyl recordings, and slides of advertisements', and in one case, a copy of McLuhan's War and Peace in the Global Village (Marchand, 1998: 227; Cavell, 2002: 132). In 1969, 'for an extra five dollars' readers could purchase a DEW-LINE deck of cards (now a collector's item), each printed with an aphorism created by McLuhan or those he admired, e.g. 'Is there a life before death?' (5 of Hearts), 'Fulton's steamboat anticipated the mini-skirt: we don't have to wait for the wind anymore' (3 of Spades) and 'Thanks for the mammaries' (7 of Diamonds). (Cavell, 2002: 132; Kuskis, n.d.) Like the I Ching, the DEW-LINE deck was intended to provide 'breakthroughs' in the face of a difficult problem, whether personal or business related. (Cavell, 2002: 132) Content aside, however, what these texts reveal is a rhetorician's concern with form.

State as a Work of Art

McLuhan says that Niccolò Machiavelli, author of Il Principe (1532, written 1513, tr. The Prince), was the first 'to turn the state into a work of art', an argument that McLuhan credits to Jacob Burckhardt (MB vi). McLuhan says that what is new in Machiavelli is the recognition and manipulation of 'the laws of power for the sake of power'. (MB 87). With the advent of electronic technology, however, which puts the state (along with all other institutions) into the place of anti-environment, McLuhan says that '[t]oday we are in a position to criticize the state as a work of art ...' (MB 87; see also TT 20)

Environment as a Work of Art

McLuhan says that the transformation of all environments into anti-environments or 'content' by means of electronic communications technology - in other words, our consciousness of the 'unconscious' environment - enables us to deal with the environment itself as a work of art (e.g. MM 68). He wrote to Jacqueline Tyrwhitt in 1964:

The [town] planner's job is to program the entire environment by an artistic modulation of sensory usages. Art is a CARE package dispatched to undernourished areas of the human sensorium. What the artist has formerly done on a private entrepreneurial basis the planner now must do on a corporate or group basis. This is equally true of education and government. Instead of worrying about program content, the job is now to program the total sensorium. (L 299)

McLuhan saw that the programming of the environment would obsolesce the classroom in education. He wrote in 1956:

Before print the community at large was the centre of education. Today, information-flow and educational impact outside the classroom is so far in excess of anything occurring inside the classroom that we must reconsider the educational process itself. The classroom is now a place of detention, not attention. Attention is elsewhere. (UB 16, p.14)

He warns in the NAEB report: 'I am not optimistic about saving any of the traditional qualities in education from the electronic bombardment.' (NAEB VII: x) However, the advantage of electronic communications media is that, by careful programming, 'we can include the learning process in the environment itself' (UB 20, pp.10-11). The computer, McLuhan says, is 'admirably suited to the artistic programming of such an environment, of taking over the task of programming the environment itself as a work of art, instead of programming the content as a work of art' (EM 224). With a dig at the 'art' scene, he proposes that: 'The new possibility demands total understanding of the artistic function in society. It will no longer be possible merely to add art to the environment.' (VP 7)

Planet as a Work of Art (Ecology)

A turning-point in our consciousness of the (unconscious) 'environment' was the launch of Sputnik, McLuhan says, at which point in time we started to deal with the Earth itself as a work of art (see UB 20, p.10; EM 224, 268; WP 177-178; CA 9-10; UB 12, p.22; TT 216, 294; UB 5, p.4). As McLuhan explains:

The planet is now the content of the new spaces created by the new technology. Instead of being an environment in time, the earth itself has become a probe in space. That is, the planet has become an anti-environment, an art form, an extension of consciousness, yielding new perception of the new man-made environment. (UB 20, p.10)

McLuhan extends this analysis in 'Roles, Masks and Performances' (1971), where he introduces the concept of the 'global theatre' as an alternative to the 'global village':

When Sputnik went around the planet in 1957 the earth became enclosed in a man-made environment and became thereby an "art" form. The globe became a theatre enclosed in a proscenium arch of satellites. From that time the "audience" or the population of the planet became actors in a new sort of theatre.... Since Sputnik the entire world has become a single sound-light show. Even the business world has now taken over the concept of "performance" as a salient criterion. (UB 12, p.22)

McLuhan connects this shift in consciousness with the 'ecology' movement. With Sputnik, he says,

For the first time the natural world was completely enclosed in a man-made container. At the moment that the earth went inside this new artifact, Nature ended and Ecology was born. "Ecological" thinking became inevitable as soon as the planet moved up into the status of a work of art. (UB 5, p.4)

McLuhan says in Take Today that 'Ecology is the simultaneous awareness of the interplay of the total field of processes.' (TT 233) Ecology, McLuhan suggests, is a matter of maintaining 'equilibrium among the components of [the] environment in order to ensure survival' (UB 5, p.4). Such thinking changes our perception of causality, for with an instantaneous and simultaneous appreciation of all processes, it becomes 'obvious that "everything causes everything."' (TT 145)

© Alice Rae 2010